Taoism:看维基百科上的道教解释及读后随记

Taoism (modernly: Daoism) is a philosophical and religious tradition that emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (modernly romanized as “Dao”). The term Tao means “way”, “path” or “principle”, and can also be found in Chinese philosophies and religions other than Taoism. In Taoism, however, Tao denotes something that is both the source and the driving force behind everything that exists. It is ultimately ineffable: “The Tao that can be told is not the eternal Tao.”[1]

The keystone work of literature in Taoism is the Tao Te Ching, a concise and ambiguous book containing teachings attributed to Laozi (Chinese: 老子; pinyin: Lǎozi; Wade–Giles: Lao Tzu). Together with the writings of Zhuangzi, these texts build the philosophical foundation of Taoism. This philosophical Taoism, individualistic by nature, is not institutionalized. Institutionalized forms, however, evolved over time in the shape of a number of different schools, often integrating beliefs and practices that even pre-dated the keystone texts – as, for example, the theories of the School of Naturalists, which synthesized the concepts of yin-yang and the Five Elements. Taoist schools traditionally feature reverence for Laozi, immortals or ancestors, along with a variety of divination and exorcism rituals, and practices for achieving ecstasy, longevity or immortality.

Taoist propriety and ethics may vary depending on the particular school, but in general tends to emphasize wu-wei (action through non-action), “naturalness”, simplicity, spontaneity, and the Three Treasures: compassion, moderation, and humility.

Taoism has had profound influence on Chinese culture in the course of the centuries, and clerics of institutionalised Taoism (Chinese: 道士; pinyin: dàoshi) usually take care to note distinction between their ritual tradition and the customs and practices found in Chinese folk religion as these distinctions sometimes appear blurred. Chinese alchemy (especially neidan), Chinese astrology, Zen Buddhism, several martial arts, Traditional Chinese medicine, feng shui, and many styles of qigong have been intertwined with Taoism throughout history. Beyond China, Taoism also had influence on surrounding societies in Asia.

After Laozi and Zhuangzi the literature of Taoism grew steadily and used to be compiled in form of a canon – the Daozang, which was at times published at the behest of the emperor. Throughout Chinese history, Taoism(道家阴符派)  was several times nominated as state religion. After the 17th century, however, it fell much from favor. Like all other religious activity, Taoism was suppressed in the first decades of the People’s Republic of China (and even persecuted during the Cultural Revolution), but continued to be practised in Taiwan. Today, it is one of five religions recognized in the PRC, and although it does not travel readily from its Asian roots, claims adherents in a number of societies.[2]

Spelling and pronunciation

Main article: Daoism–Taoism romanization issue
The Dai Temple at Mount Tai, one of the holiest mountains in China (http://blog.yinfupai.com)

English-speakers continue to debate the preferred romanization of the words “Daoism” and “Taoism”. The root Chinese word 道 “way, path” is romanized tao in the older Wade–Giles system and dào in the modern Pinyin system. In linguistic terminology, English Taoism/Daoism is formed from the Chinese loanword tao/dao 道 “way; route; principle” and the native suffix -ism. The debate over Taoism vs. Daoism involve sinology, phonemes, loanwords, and politics – not to mention whether Taoism should be pronounced /ˈtaʊ.ɪzəm/ or /ˈdaʊ.ɪzəm/.

Daoism is pronounced /ˈdaʊ.ɪzəm/, but English speakers disagree whether Taoism should be /ˈdaʊ.ɪzəm/ or /ˈtaʊ.ɪzəm/. In theory, both Wade–Giles tao and Pinyin dao are articulated identically, as are Taoism and Daoism. An investment book titled The Tao Jones Averages (a pun on the Dow Jones Indexes) illustrates this /daʊ/ pronunciation’s widespread familiarity.[3] In speech, Tao and Taoism are often pronounced /ˈtaʊ/ and ˈtaʊ.ɪzəm/, reading the Chinese unaspirated lenis (“weak”) /t/ as the English voiceless stop consonant /t/. Lexicography shows American and British English differences in pronouncing Taoism. A study of major English dictionaries published in Great Britain and the United States found the most common Taoism glosses were /taʊ.ɪzəm/ in British sources and /daʊ.ɪzəm, taʊ.ɪzəm/ in American ones.[4]

 Categorization

There is debate over how, and whether, Taoism should be categorized. Traditionally, it is divided into two categories:[5]

Philosophical Taoism (Daojia, Chinese: 道家; pinyin: dàojiā; lit. “school of Dao”) – The philosophy based on the texts of the Daodejing (道德經) and the Zhuangzi (莊子). These texts were linked together under the term of Daojia during the early Han Dynasty, but notably not before.[6][7] It is unlikely that Zhuangzi was familiar with the text of the Daodejing,[8][9] and Zhuangzi would not have identified himself as a Taoist as this classification did not arise until well after his death.[9]
Religious Taoism (Daojiao, Chinese: 道敎; pinyin: dàojiào; lit. “teachings of Dao”) – A family of organized religious movements sharing concepts or terminology derived from Daojia;[10] the first of these is recognized as the Celestial Masters school.

However, the distinction between Daojia and Daojiao is rejected by the majority of modern scholars (at least in Japan and the West).[11][12][13] It is, among others, contested by hermeneutic (interpretive) difficulties in the categorization of the different Taoist schools, sects and movements.[14] Taoism does not fall under an umbrella or a definition of a single organized religion like the Abrahamic traditions; nor can it be studied as the originator or a variant of Chinese folk religion, as although the two share some similar concepts, much of Chinese folk religion is outside of the tenets and core teachings of Taoism.[15] Sinologists Isabelle Robinet and Livia Kohn agree that “Taoism has never been a unified religion, and has constantly consisted of a combination of teachings based on a variety of original revelations.”[16]
Origins and development
Main article: History of Taoism
White Cloud Monastery, Beijing

Laozi is traditionally regarded as the founder of Taoism and is closely associated in this context with “original”, or “primordial”, Taoism.[17] Whether he actually existed is commonly disputed;[18][19] however, the work attributed to him – the Daodejing – is dated to the late 4th century BC.[20]

Taoism draws its cosmological foundations from the School of Yin-Yang (in form of its main elements – yin and yang and the Five Phases), which developed during the Warring States period (4th to 3rd centuries BC).[21]

Robinet identifies four components in the emergence of Taoism:

Philosophical Taoism, i.e. the Daodejing and Zhuangzi
techniques for achieving ecstasy
practices for achieving longevity or immortality
exorcism.[18]

Some elements of Taoism may be traced to prehistoric folk religions in China that later coalesced into a Taoist tradition.[22][23] In particular, many Taoist practices drew from the Warring-States-era phenomena of the wu (connected to the “shamanism” of Southern China) and the fangshi (which probably derived from the “archivist-soothsayers of antiquity, one of whom supposedly was Laozi himself”), even though later Taoists insisted that this was not the case.[24] Both terms were used to designate individuals dedicated to “… magic, medicine, divination,… methods of longevity and to ecstatic wanderings” as well as exorcism; in the case of the wu, “shamans” or “sorcerers” is often used as a translation.[24] The fangshi were philosophically close to the School of Yin-Yang, and relied much on astrological and calendrical speculations in their divinatory activities.[25]

The first organized form of Taoism, the Tianshi (Celestial Masters’) school (later known as Zhengyi school), developed from the Five Pecks of Rice movement at the end of the 2nd century AD; the latter had been founded by Zhang Daoling, who claimed that Laozi appeared to him in the year 142.[26] The Tianshi school was officially recognized by ruler Cao Cao in 215, legitimizing Cao Cao’s rise to power in return.[27] Laozi received imperial recognition as a divinity in the mid-2nd century BCE.[28]

Taoism, in form of the Shangqing school, gained official status in China again during the Tang Dynasty (618–907), whose emperors claimed Laozi as their relative.[29] The Shangqing movement, however, had developed much earlier, in the 4th century, on the basis of a series of revelations by gods and spirits to a certain Yang Xi in the years between 364 to 370.[30]

Between 397 and 402, Ge Chaofu compiled a series of scriptures which later served as the foundation of the Lingbao school,[31] which unfolded its greatest influence during the Song Dynasty (960–1279).[32] Several Song emperors, most notably Huizong, were active in promoting Taoism, collecting Taoist texts and publishing editions of the Daozang.[33]

In the 12th century, the Quanzhen School was founded in Shandong. It flourished during the 13th and 14th century and during the Yuan dynasty became the largest and most important Taoist school in Northern China. The school’s most revered master, Qiu Chuji, met with Genghis Khan in 1222 and was successful in influencing the Khan towards exerting more restraint during his brutal conquests. By the Khan’s decree, the school also was exempt from taxation.[34]

Aspects of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism were consciously synthesized in the Neo-Confucian school, which eventually became Imperial orthodoxy for state bureaucratic purposes under the Ming (1368–1644).[35] The Qing Dynasty (1644–1912), however, much favored Confucian classics over Taoist works. During the 18th century, the imperial library was constituted, but excluded virtually all Taoist books.[36] By the beginning of the 20th century, Taoism had fallen much from favor (for example, only one complete copy of the Daozang still remained, at the White Cloud Monastery in Beijing).[37]

Today, Taoism is one of five religions recognized by the People’s Republic of China. The government regulates its activities through the Chinese Taoist Association.[38] Taoism is freely practiced in Taiwan, where it claims millions of adherents.

Ethics
A Taoist Temple in Taiwan, showing elements of the Jingxiang religious practice and sculptures of Dragon and Lion guardians

Taoism tends to emphasize various themes of the Daodejing and Zhuangzi, such as naturalness, spontaneity, simplicity, detachment from desires, and most important of all, wu wei.[39] However, the concepts of those keystone texts can not be equated with Taoism as a whole.[40]

可以看得出来,在外国人眼里的道教只是一个宗教,对道教大概的轮廓是有所把握的,但是对内部的具体的教理、教义还停留在比较肤浅的研究之上,一则没有把握清楚道教的精神:“naturalness, spontaneity, simplicity, detachment from desires, and most important of all, wu wei”,自然清静无为,这个把握比较妥当。但是这只独是老庄学派的看法,另外还有黄老学派则不完全如此认识,所谓“一粒金丹吞入腹,我命在我不在天”,这种金丹概念与欧洲炼金术或是原始的埃及炼金术中寻找的哲人之石极为相似,清静自然无为,只是一种手段而不是一种理念,终极的目标是大道,这类似于一种对真理的追求,在这里理解上的偏差,可见在西方的思维里对道教认识很肤浅的,更是对道教里含有的道学思想更是没有深入的了解。道教的目标不是要自然清静无为,而是发现了通过自然清静无为可以去追寻大道,”天地自合”,”万物自宾”,“独立而不改”,“周行而不殆”,这些是道的目标,但又不是最终极的目标。

 Tao and Te
Main articles: Tao and De (Chinese)

Tao (Chinese: 道; pinyin: dào) literally means “way”, but can also be interpreted as road, channel, path, doctrine, or line.[41] In Taoism, it is “the One, which is natural, spontaneous, eternal, nameless, and indescribable. It is at once the beginning of all things and the way in which all things pursue their course.”[42] It has variously been denoted as the “flow of the universe”,[43] a “conceptually necessary ontological ground”,[44] or a demonstration of nature.[45] The Tao also is something that individuals can find immanent in themselves.[46]

The active expression of Tao is called Te (also spelled – and pronounced – De, or even Teh; often translated with Virtue or Power; Chinese: 德; pinyin: dé),[47] in a sense that Te results from an individual living and cultivating the Tao.[48]

这里描述的道与德比较哲学化,不过总体描述还是靠谱的。

Tao and Te
Main articles: Tao and De (Chinese)

Tao (Chinese: 道; pinyin: dào) literally means “way”, but can also be interpreted as road, channel, path, doctrine, or line.[41] In Taoism, it is “the One, which is natural, spontaneous, eternal, nameless, and indescribable. It is at once the beginning of all things and the way in which all things pursue their course.”[42] It has variously been denoted as the “flow of the universe”,[43] a “conceptually necessary ontological ground”,[44] or a demonstration of nature.[45] The Tao also is something that individuals can find immanent in themselves.[46]

The active expression of Tao is called Te (also spelled – and pronounced – De, or even Teh; often translated with Virtue or Power; Chinese: 德; pinyin: dé),[47] in a sense that Te results from an individual living and cultivating the Tao.[48]

关于无为的描述,这里认识是说通过无为的方式来进入一种于天地共鸣,与宇宙和谐的状态,如果解释成天人合一的话,在翻译上还能算过得去吧,不过对道的含义的解释出现了问题,但这也是没办法的事,道可道,非常道,中文也说不清楚的东西,更难以指望英文了。

Naturalness
Naturalness (Chinese: 自然; pinyin: zìrán; Wade–Giles: tzu-jan; lit. “self-such”) is regarded as a central value in Taoism.[55] It describes the “primordial state” of all things[56] as well as a basic character of the Tao[57], and is usually associated with spontaneity and creativity.[58][57] To attain naturalness, one has to identify with the Tao[57]; this involves freeing oneself from selfishness and desire, and appreciating simplicity.[55]

An often cited metaphor for naturalness is pu (simplified Chinese: 朴; traditional Chinese: 樸; pinyin: pǔ, pú; Wade–Giles: p’u; lit. “uncut wood”), the “uncarved block”, which represents the “original nature… prior to the imprint of culture” of an individual.[59] It is usually referred to as a state one returns to.[60]

英文里的” Naturalness“这个词是令人惊喜的,因为这个词非常恰当的描述了“自然”的概念,最有趣的是,国内很多读道德经的,竟然大部分人知道“道法自然”这一句,却完全不知道什么才是“自然”,有些人认为就是指的“大自然”,指的是环境,天地间的东西,本来自然是描述的“自性,本性”的东西,是一种抽象的概念意指,在普通人的理解里,它变成了一种具体的事物,不同的理解层次上,对自然的把握的程度直接关系到对“道”的认识,这也是道的奥妙之处。

Three Treasures
The Three Treasures or Three Jewels (simplified Chinese: 三宝; traditional Chinese: 三寶; pinyin: sānbǎo) are basic virtues in Taoism comprising Compassion, Moderation, and Humility. They are also translated as kindness, simplicity (or the absence of excess), and modesty. Arthur Waley describes them as “[t]he three rules that formed the practical, political side of the author’s teaching”. He correlated the Three Treasures with “abstention from aggressive war and capital punishment”, “absolute simplicity of living”, and “refusal to assert active authority”.[61]

这一段是不是弄错了,三宝应该是道经师,这里似乎全弄错了。

 Cosmology

In this spirit, the universe is seen as being in a constant process of re-creating itself, as everything that exists is a mere aspect of qi, which, “condensed, becomes life; diluted, it is indefinite potential”.[62] Qi is in a perpetual transformation between its condensed and diluted state.[63] These two different states of qi, on the other hand, are embodiments of the abstract entities of yin and yang,[63] two complementary extremes that constantly play against and with each other and can not exist without the other.[64]

Human beings are seen as a microcosm of the universe,[15] and for example comprise the Five Elements in form of the zang-fu organs.[65] As a consequence, it is believed that deeper understanding of the universe can be achieved by understanding oneself.[66]

把“聚之成形,散之成气”翻译得很不到位,阴阳的描述也是很含糊,很容易让人误以为道教的世界观只有黑白两色,实际上道教的思想里,阴阳只是最基本的东西,而在阴阳之上复叠出来的八卦才是更重要的东西,而八卦间的关系又是通过四象与阴阳卦爻的关系来描述内部结构变化,最后产生一种呈象。此段唯把人体看作一种宇宙的说法是比较合适的,不过西方在对五行的理解上,总是有很大的偏差,不是把它作为一种非完满逻辑元素,如五要素,就是理解成如古希腊哲学中的风火土水一样的元素概念,而完全忽略了五行的来源其实是生克关系的演化,而生克才是表达事物的核心,五行与生克共同构成的是一种完满的逻辑推理结构。

Physical exercises
Main articles: Taoist alchemy, Neijia, and Taoist sexual practices

A recurrent and important element of Taoism are rituals, exercises and substances aiming at aligning oneself spiritually with cosmic forces, at undertaking ecstatic spiritual journeys, or at improving physical health and thereby extending one’s life, ideally to the point of immortality.[67][68] Probably the most characteristic among these methods is Taoist alchemy. Already in very early Taoist scriptures – like the Taiping Jing and the Baopuzi – alchemical formulas for achieving immortality were outlined.[69][70] Enlightened and immortal beings are referred to as xian.

A number of martial arts traditions, particularly the ones falling under the category of Neijia (like T’ai Chi Ch’uan, Bagua Zhang and Xing Yi Quan) embody Taoist principles to a significant extent, and some practitioners consider their art to be a means of practicing Taoism.[71]

Taoist beliefs include teachings based on revelations from various sources. Therefore, different branches of Taoism often have differing beliefs, especially concerning deities and the proper composition of the pantheon.[72] Nevertheless, there are certain core beliefs that nearly all the sects share.[73]

Popular Taoism typically presents the Jade Emperor as the official head deity. Intellectual (“elite”) Taoists, such as the Celestial Masters sect, usually present Laozi (Laojun, “Lord Lao”) and the Three Pure Ones at the top of the pantheon of deities.[17][74] The pantheon tends to mirror the bureaucracy of Imperial China; deities also may be promoted or demoted for their actions.[75]

While a number of immortals or other mysterious figures appear in the Zhuangzi, and to a lesser extent in the Tao Te Ching, these have generally not become the objects of worship. Traditional conceptions of Tao are not to be confused with the Western concepts of theism. Being one with the Tao does not indicate a union with an eternal spirit in, for example, the Hindu sense.[45][52]

The Tao Te Ching or Daodejing, also often called Laozi, is widely regarded to be the most influential Taoist text.[76] According to legend, it was written by Laozi.[77] However, authorship, precise date of origin, and even unity of the text are still subject of debate,[78] and will probably never be known with certainty.[79] The earliest texts of the Tao Te Ching that have been excavated – the Guodian bamboo slips – date back to the late 4th century BC.[80] Throughout the history of religious Taoism, the Tao Te Ching has been used as a ritual text.[81]

The famous opening lines of the Tao Te Ching are:

道可道非常道 (pinyin: dào kĕ dào fēi cháng dào)
“The Tao that can be told is not the eternal Tao”
名可名非常名 (pinyin: míng kĕ míng fēi cháng míng)
“The name that can be named is not the eternal name.”[1]

There is significant, at times acrimonious debate regarding which English translation of the Tao Te Ching is to be preferred, and which particular translation methodology is best.[82]

The Tao Te Ching is not thematically ordered. However, the main themes of the text are repeatedly expressed using variant formulations, often with only a slight difference.[83] The leading themes revolve around the nature of Tao and how to attain it. Tao is said to be ineffable, and accomplishing great things through small means.[84]

Ancient commentaries on the Tao Te Ching are important texts in their own right. Perhaps the oldest one, the Heshang Gong commentary, was most likely written in the 2nd century CE.[85] Other important commentaries include the one from Wang Bi and the Xiang’er.[86]
Zhuangzi
Main article: Zhuangzi (book)
Daozang
Main article: Daozang

The Daozang (道藏, Treasury of Tao) is also referred to as the Taoist canon. It was originally compiled during the Jin, Tang, and Song dynasties. The version surviving today was published during the Ming Dynasty.[87][88] The Ming Daozang includes almost 1500 texts.[89] Following the example of the Buddhist Tripiṭaka, it is divided into three dong (洞, “caves”, “grottoes”). They are arranged from “highest” to “lowest”:[90][91]

The Zhen (“real” or “truth” 眞) grotto. Includes the Shangqing texts.
The Xuan (“mystery” 玄) grotto. Includes the Lingbao scriptures.
The Shen (“divine” 神) grotto. Includes texts predating the Maoshan (茅山) revelations.

Daoshi generally do not consult published versions of the Daozang, but individually choose, or inherit, texts included in the Daozang. These texts have been passed down for generations from teacher to student.[92]

The Shangqing school has a tradition of approaching Taoism through scriptural study. It is believed that by reciting certain texts often enough one will be rewarded with immortality.[93]

While the Tao Te Ching is most famous, there are many other important texts in traditional Taoism including Mohism. Taishang Ganying Pian (“Treatise of the Exalted One on Response and Retribution”) discusses sin and ethics, and has become a popular morality tract in the last few centuries.[94] It asserts that those in harmony with Tao will live long and fruitful lives. The wicked, and their descendants, will suffer and have shortened lives.[84]

 Other texts

While the Tao Te Ching is most famous, there are many other important texts in traditional Taoism including Mohism. Taishang Ganying Pian (“Treatise of the Exalted One on Response and Retribution”) discusses sin and ethics, and has become a popular morality tract in the last few centuries.[94] It asserts that those in harmony with Tao will live long and fruitful lives. The wicked, and their descendants, will suffer and have shortened lives.[

纯学术性的描述,没有太多可说的。

Symbols and images
A Chinese dragon at the Mengjia Longshan Temple in Taipei

The Taijitu (“yin and yang”) symbol 太極圖 as well as the Ba gua 八卦 (“Eight Trigrams”) are associated with Taoist symbolism.[95] While almost all Taoist organizations make use of the yin and yang symbol, one could also call it Confucian, Neo-Confucian or pan-Chinese. The yin and yang make an “S” shape, with yin (Black or Red) on the right. One is likely to see this symbol as decorations on Taoist organization flags and logos, temple floors, or stitched into clerical robes. According to Song Dynasty sources, it originated around the 10th century.[96] Previously, yin and yang were symbolized by a tiger and dragon.[96]

Taoist temples may fly square or triangular flags. They typically feature mystical writing or diagrams and are intended to fulfill various functions including providing guidance for the spirits of the dead, to bring good fortune, increase life span, etc.[97] Other flags and banners may be those of the gods or immortals themselves.[98]

A zigzag with seven stars is sometimes displayed, representing the Big Dipper (or the Bushel, the Chinese equivalent). In the Shang Dynasty the Big Dipper was considered a deity, while during the Han Dynasty, it was considered a qi path of the circumpolar god, Taiyi.[99]

Taoist temples in southern China and Taiwan may often be identified by their roofs, which feature Chinese dragons and phoenix made from multi-colored ceramic tiles. They also stand for the harmony of yin and yang (with the phoenix being yin). A related symbol is the flaming pearl which may be seen on such roofs between two dragons, as well as on the hairpin of a Celestial Master.[100] In general though, Chinese Taoist architecture has no universal features that distinguish it from other structures.[101]

这里提出用北斗来代表道家,这个倒是不错的主意,不过中国整个儿根就是在道家的,儒家同时很重视北斗,凡有涉天文,都言北斗指寅则天下皆春,所以这个只是不错的主意,实际上还是不太适合。

至于提到的龙与凤,相对来说,道家如果提及这些,一定是四象俱全的,单纯的龙还是儒家谈得多一些,而且儒家谈的是神龙,道教里的龙谈的是青龙,并没有神龙那么高的地位,用来代表道教是很不合适的。

又有认为道教的代表图案是太极图,实际上,太极图及八卦图应该算是儒道共用的,这里很难区别出道与儒之间的关联,道与儒主要是在一些事务上的看法有较大的不同,如儒 家主修人道,认为人就应活成一个高尚的人,效仿圣人像君子一样,这种要求主要是从人身的行为,思想,道德各方面来规范的,而道家则认为这是一种约束,虽然 目的是好的,但并不认为这种约束能够达到目的,更好的作法是应该采用无为的方式去引导,如不贵难得之物,使民不为盗,从根源上去解决。这种只是看法不同, 无所谓对错,历史经验证明,儒家的办法不太好使,历史上的大多贪官污吏或是奸臣大多原来都是读书人,读书给了他们智慧,却没有赋予他们道德。窃以为,真没有什么适合代表道的图案,如果硬要强行弄一个,考虑到现世儒家势弱,大众意识里又觉得太极八卦是很神秘的东西,就安在道教头上也未尝不可。

后面的都是一些杂事,没有什么可说的了。

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